Saturday, June 1, 2013



Virgilio T. Villancio and Ana T. Papag[2]


The Philippines has 30 million hectares and about 54 percent are considered upland areas and are very prone to soil erosion. Only about 800,000 hectares were under the natural forest in 2002. There are about three (3) million hectares under rice-based farming systems and another three (3) million hectares in the corn-based farming systems. The recent estimate of the Philippine Coconut Authority (PCA) reported about four (4) million hectares under coconut-based farming systems. There are about 20 million people estimated to be living in those upland areas.
The need for land use systems that will provide permanent cover to these areas is recognized. These systems should be able to provide production and income for the people and at the same time develop the watershed to provide the basic services and functions. This is where agroforestry is recognized to be important. Agroforestry combines woody perennial crops and short duration agricultural crops grown simultaneously or sequentially in the farm. It is also referred to as a system of growing trees on farm. Fruit trees are natural component of agroforestry since fruits are harvested and provide benefits without necessarily cutting the trees. Among the commonly grown fruit crops in the Philippines are pineapple, banana, mango, papaya, lanzones, and citrus. Durian and Mangosteen are becoming popular not only in Mindanao but in the Luzon areas as well. While some fruits are grown in orchard or plantation (banana, pineapple and to some extent solo papaya) as monocrop there are more farms that integrate fruit trees as component of multi-crop farming systems, which are commonly classified as agroforestry system.
This paper will deal with the benefits derived from and some examples of the ways of integrating fruit trees in agroforestry.  Some issues and opportunities for the improvement of the fruit industry in relation to agroforestry are also mentioned.


            Agroforestry is defined as the science, art and practice that deals with the production, management and utilization of woody perennials in combination with other agricultural crops, animals, aquatic and/or other resources either zonally, mixed simultaneously or sequentially for the twin purpose of conservation and socio-economic productivity (UAP, 1992).  Fruit crops are either woody perennials like santol, Mango, rambutan, Durian and Mangosteen; vines like passion fruit and grapes; or herbaceous like pineapple and banana. Whatever categories, fruit crops are important component in agroforestry system. The integration of fruit crops in agroforestry system provides economic, nutrition and environmental benefits as follows:

·         There are medium maturing fruit crops that can provide production and income while the climax agroforestry systems are being developed. Among the examples are banana, papaya, pineapple and passion fruit. A farmer in South Cotabato was reported  produced as much as PhP 140,000 in 1994 from guapple planted  along the contour of  his sloping farm (Non, 1999).
·         Fruit crops can be processed into various product forms and stored. Example is Mango, which are not only used and consumed fresh green or ripe fruit but also being served as green and ripe juices. Mango fruits are also processed as puree or dried mango.
·         Fruit crops can serve as a pension crop. Fruit crops once established and appropriately managed become productive after four to eight years. Among the examples are rambutan, mango, lanzones, citrus, guyabano and mangosteen.
·         Fruits do not necessarily be sweet to be desirable. For lanzones, rambutan, oranges, mangosteen and tamarind, consumers are looking for the sweet taste. There is a room for developing appreciation for sour fruits into juices. Calamansi and dalandan juice are now gaining in the ready-to-drink juice market. Passion fruit can be the next addition while bignay and tamarind are good candidates. Bignay, passion fruit, calumpit, duhat, lepote and I hope cashew and mabolo have good potential for fruit wine production. Fruit jellies, marmalades and jams produced by upland communities are best sellers as reported by the Upland Marketing Foundation.
·         Fruits are good food supplement. Most fruits are good source of vitamin C. Banana provides phosphorous for the body. Bignay is alleged to have medicinal properties.
·         Good crops started from good planting materials. Farmers with good quality parent trees of fruit crops also profit from sale of seeds, seedlings and scion materials.
·         With the depletion of timber for the woodcraft industries, some fruit tree species are now providing raw materials. Timber from Santol provides good material for woodcarving and baluster. The yellowish wood of nangka provides a natural material in guitar production.


 Starting at the homestead. Appreciation of planting fruit crops can best be developed if we start planting it in our backyard. In this manner, we can be familiar with the cultural and management requirement of fruit production with less investment. Depending on the area available, we can start with few seedlings of papaya, suckers of banana (saba, latundan, lakatan), grafted rambutan, mango, pomelo or durian. These crops can be planted without necessarily sacrificing the area for vegetables and other crops. If you combine these crops and trees in your homestead, then you have an agroforestry garden.

While waiting for the best one enjoy with the good one. Fruit crops can be integrated to provide income in the medium term. While annual crops like corn, peanut, upland rice and vegetables can be planted during the first year with the desired climax agroforestry system (like those with coffee, black pepper and timber trees), fruit crops like papaya, pineapple and banana can be planted. These fruit crops provide income during the second to fourth year of the system while the climax crop are not yet productive. A family in Nabunturan, Compostela Valley received about PhP 300,000 income from its first harvest of Lanzones in 1987, which had been instrumental in expanding their farm areas and other farm investment (Arboleda et. al. 2003).

Fruit Crops based Agroforestry System. The case of a Davao farmer (Arboleda et. al., 2003) put more emphasis in fruit crops like durian and mangosteen as the climax agroforestry system. He cleared the land, have it plowed (using a tractor) twice and harrowed three times. It is then planted to banana and corn. Durian is then planted at 10 x 10 spacing. The corn harvested already paid for the land preparation cost while the first harvest of banana already covered the establishment and maintenance cost. Durian started fruiting during the fourth year and he starting clearing the farm with banana. Can he plant pineapple in between existing durian? There is still room for planting yautia or Gabing San Fernando underneath. A farmer in Alaminos, Laguna is herding chicken (kabir) underneath his 15-year old rambutan (Villancio, 2001). A farmer in Bulacan herd goats under the mango farm.

A part of the Agroforestry farm and landscape mosaic. In the case of a farmer in Visayas, fruit crops are a part of the overall farm landscape mosaic. In one part of the farm, he has two strips of pomelo and below it are patches of kalamansi. In the other side near the road are rows of durian (20 trees) and on the western corner are 15 trees of mangosteen that are planted in between rows of banana. About ½ hectare  have hedgerows of natural vegetation with the alleys in between cultivated alternately to corn and vegetables. Near the house, is a shed for four (4) does and single buck. At the top portion of the hill is a mini-forest that combine exotic and indigenous species of trees, bamboo, palm and other plants. In the narrow valley is a fishpond. You will be glad to see a watershed with these landscape mosaic in place.


            Integrating fruit crops in agroforestry systems have great potentials and opportunities specially when the following issues and concerns are addressed:

1.    Improvement of planting materials quality. Our case studies among the fruit tree seedling nurseries showed the need to improve the availability of good quality planting materials. There are nurseries that do not have available scion grove as well as indexed parent trees. In most cases, they rely in existing orchard for the source of scion.

2.    Development of value-added products. Just imagine opening a can of a leading brand of fruit cocktail. You have pineapple, papaya, peaches, etc. Among those fruits, which are domestically produced? Can we find substitute to apple, peaches and cherries.

A family of six (6) just came by to visit you in a summer option and what you have in the refrigerator are four (4) prices of ice in bags, you do not have to worry because you still have the halo-halo mix in doy pack ready to serve for six (6) person. The content of that mix is a product of agroforestry; you have banana, sweet potato, white beans, ube (yam) and leche plan. Forget about the melon. Do you think you may buy that halo-halo mix when you see it in the supermarket stalls? Please buy, because it will increase the demand for fruit and other products of agroforestry.

3.    Developing new raw materials. Among the local fruit jams, strawberry jam is the most popular. During our SALE Training in Davao City, one of the participant asked if the wild strawberry which are abundant in Mt. Matutum, South Cotabato. Wild Rambutan and Tamarind can be a potential for juice production. Kalahan Educational Foundation developed Dagwey (a local fruit) in Nueva Viscaya for jelly production. These materials, which are otherwise not utilized, can be developed to produce new products.

I remember a water treatment consultant I met at the Hongkong Airport who asked if it is possible to use mabolo as substitute for apple. Of course, I imagined the smell of the fruit, its texture, and how it is just set aside to rot in the roadside of UPLB. But if you harvest the proper time, processed it to improve the texture, or make the flavor as well, will the consumer recognize that it is mabolo? What about fruit cocktail with balimbing (Star fruit)?

4.    Enhancement of support services particularly in training and marketing of other value added products.  The development of Matutum’s Best Jelly started with the assistance from the Foundation for Philippine Environment (FPE) to Mt. Matututm Integrated Area Development Project that supported a group of women to have an exposure trip to Kalahan Educational Foundation (KEF) at Imugan, Nueva Viscaya.. Experts from KEF and MUAD-Negros, another partner NGO, provided on-site training on guava jelly production to the members of the cooperative. De Luna et. al (2003) reported the profitable production of Matutum’s Best Jelly by the Maligo Multi-purpose Cooperative (MMPC) with an ROI of 40 percent.

Another concern is in product marketing. This is where the Upland Marketing Foundation (UMF) helps. The UMF does not only help in training but also provide marketing assistance for the processed products of upland farmers and organizations. Marketing of processed products from the Kalahan Educational Foundation in Nueva Viscaya is now handled by UMF.

5.    Lack of capital and high cost of fruit crops establishment. In small farms, the cost of quality planting materials in a major deterrent in planting fruit crops. A ready to plant grafted rambutan seedling cost about P45 while durian cost about P85. Mangosteen seedlings cost as much as P100. Calamansi seedlings cost P10-15. These costs are expensive to most farmers. Some farmers buy newly grafted but established seedlings, which are almost half the price of plantable seedlings. They buy in December, have it maintained in their backyard nursery until May for planting. There are some other cost reduction or cost recovery measure that could be done. Crop diversification with annual crops as described before is one of them.


           The adoption of agroforestry as a land use system as well as fruit crop production are still not widespread. Information about the benefits of integrating fruit crops in agroforestry systems needs to be done. The crop diversification strategy combining early maturing fruit crops like passion fruit and papaya with medium maturing crop like pineapple and banana will support the establishment of long maturing and producing fruits like rambutan, lanzones, mangosteen, mango and durian.  In combination with other timber and non-timber species, the climax agroforestry system will be more sustainable as it somewhat simulates the forest ecosystem providing products and income for the people and at the same time providing environmental services.

           Fruit trees in the agroforestry systems ensure that trees are not cut for timber but are maintained for the fruits that it provides. Expanded fruit production will contribute for the development of value-added enterprise in terms of food processing and distribution. Fruit derived products such as puree, jelly, jam, marmalade, juice, wine and dehydrated products are gaining in the market. Given appropriate technologies and support, this will provide alternative livelihood to people in the uplands thus help in eradicating rural poverty.


Arboleda, L.P., W.M. Carandang and S.T. Cepada. 2003. Cepada’s Farm: Simbolo ng Pagtutulungan at Modelo ng Kakayahan ng Agroforestry. Case study presented during the Workshop for the Development of Agroforestry Technology Information Kit (RATIK), Mindanao Training resource Center, 10-13 August 2003.
Arboleda, L.P., W.M. Carandang and S. Belviz. 2003. Ang Agroforestry: May Kakayanan bang Maging Komersyal? Pagpapatunay ng isang Magsasaka. Case study presented during the Workshop for the Development of Agroforestry Technology Information Kit (RATIK), Mindanao Training resource Center, 10-13 August 2003.
De Luna, C.C., N.G. Natural, R.N. Nalugon, R. de la Pena and A. Oftana. 2003. Katututbong Bayabas simula sa Pag-usbong ng Bagong Negosyo: Ang Karanasan ng Matutum’s Best Jelly. Case study presented during the Workshop for the Development of Agroforestry Technology Information Kit (RATIK), Mindanao Training resource Center, 10-13 August 2003.
Non, D.S. 1999. Fruit-based Farming Systems: A case in Tampakan, South Cotabato. In Successful Farming Systems in the Philippines- A Documentation. Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute and Bureau of Agricultural Research. P191-202.
PCARRD. 2003. Agroforestry and Multipurpose Trees and Shrubs – R&D Directions (2000 and beyond). Philippine Council for Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resources Research and Development, Los Banos, Laguna.
UPLB Agroforestry Program. 1992. Developing an Agroforestry Curriculum Using DACUM Process- Workshop Proceedings, November 23-26, 1992.UPLB
Villancio, V.T. 2000. Fruit Growers as Entrepreneurs. Paper presented during the Fruit Congress sponsored by the Philippine fruits Association held at PCARRD, November 14, 2000.

[1] Paper presented during the 11th National Fruit Symposium, West Visayas State University, La Paz, Iloilo City, October 22-24, 2003

[2] Director and University Research Associate, Institute of Agroforestry, College of Forestry and Natural Resources, UP Los Banos, College, Laguna



Farming is not just a way of life, it is a business and a system consisting of various enterprises wherein the farm households allocates its resources to attain their goals be it for subsistence or for profit considering its environment. Farming, as in business, is a function of proper balance and integration of the farm’s enterprises, products, services and its resources considering the dynamic external environment (Edralin, 1998). This is where the farmer as an entrepreneur perform a major role. This paper look at the concept of enterprise, entrepreneurship, entrepreneur and how could these concept can be used to form the concept of farmer entrepreneur. The characteristics of farmer entrepreneurs and the factors for their success were also described.

What is an enterprise?

            An enterprise refer to specific undertaking, project or venture (dictionary). In a farming system, crop enterprise would mean production of specific commodities like rice, corn, fruits, vegetables and other crops. In the same manner, animal enterprise may mean carabao, cattle, poultry and  swine production. Off-farm enterprise mean other farm related activities but not done in the farmer’s farm but in relation with other farmers. Non-farm enterprise, on the other hand, refers to non-farm activities such as handicraft making, carpentry, trading and other enterprises not related to farming. The goal of the farmer entrepreneur is not only for subsistence but also for profit.

What is entrepreneurship?

            Entrepreneurship was described by several author as:

·         The ability of the individuals to perceive the kind of products and services that others need and to deliver these at the right time, to the right place, to the right people and at the right price (SERDEF & UPISSI, 1989).

·         Capacity for innovation, investment and expansion in new markets, products and techniques (Nathaniel Left).

·         Taking the risk and invest resources to make something unique or something new, new designs, new way of making something that already exist, or create new markets.

Who are the entrepreneurs?

            There are several definitions of entrepreneurs forwarded by various authors, among which include:

·         A person who takes the risk and put this ability into action for optimum profit and personal satisfaction (Edralin, 1998).

·         One who bears uncertainty, buys labor and materials, and sells products at uncertain prices (Cantillon as cited by Fajardo, 1994)

·         Who takes risks and makes innovations on the factors of production (Cantillon as cited by Fajardo, 1994)

·         Adventurer, undertaker and projector

·         Function to supply and accumulate capital

·         An innovator, does new things and does things in a new way, supplies new products, make new techniques of production, discovers new sources of raw materials (Schumpeter as cited by Fajardo, 1994)

·         Searches for  change, responds to it and exploit it as opportunity (Peter Drucker as cited by Fajardo, 1994)

·         One who shifts economic resources from an area of lower productivity to an area of higher productivity and yield.

·         A person who organizes, operates and assumes the risk for business ventures (American Heritage Dictionary)

·         People who have the ability to see and evaluate business opportunities, to gather necessary resources and to take advantage of them and to initiate appropriate action to ensure success.

·         Those who launch their own ventures from scratch. They develop scarce resources into successful business by their instinct for opportunity, sense of timing, hardwork and idea producing activity (Fajardo, 1994)

What are the characteristics of entrepreneurs ?

            Fajardo (1994) cited the description made by the Development Bank of the Philippines as to the qualities of entrepreneurs as follows:

1.    Self-reliant.  They count on their efforts and succeed by doing a good job. They rely principally on their own merits and work. Their self-reliance are founded on hard work. They have confidence and  strong faith on their abilities, optimistic, positive thinkers. These qualities drive them to work with more enthusiasm and energy to reach their goals. “If ye have faith as a grain of mustard seed …. Nothing shall be impossible unto you.”

2.    Risk-taker. They rise to the challenge and convert problems to opportunities. Their competence are indicative of their openness to new ideas, new skills and new developments. Despite setbacks and mistakes, they start all over again. The success of an entrepreneur depend on their ability to make decisions despite the risk. They gather data about the situation, analyze the data and make their decisions. Given information at hand and their experiences, ideas including hunches, they are not afraid to make decisions.

3.     Industrious. They value work and find joy in working.  They are proud of the workmanship, conscious about quality, and the value of their products. Successful entrepreneurs started with practically nothing but hardwork and determination. Poverty is not a hindrance for entrepreneurs. They strive and work for their vision. Success comes to those who think they can and work for it.

4.    Humble. They have the humility and single-mindedness of purpose.  Being hardworking, they are not ashamed to do work how lowly will it be as long as it will  contribute to the attainment of their goals. Most successful entrepreneurs started from humble beginnings.

5.    Helpful. They work with others from different fields and conscious that with their help, they can achieve more. They think about others, especially those who work for them. They know that the welfare of their staff are also the welfare of the firm.

6.    Creative. They are never satisfied. They are creative and not satisfied with things as they are and with how things are being done. They experiment. They continue to do things in a different way and create new products, method, services, markets and utilization of raw materials. Innovations result to low cost of production, higher profit, enhancement of environment, and other aspects more beneficial  not only to the firm but to the society as well.

7.    Leadership. They lead people in the conduct of their business. They plan, organize and implement. They share and lead in the business fields they are engaged with.

8.    Happy. They find joy and in what they do. The satisfaction of customers are rewards of their efforts.

 The characteristics enumerated above also characterized the farmer entrepreneurs studied by FSSRI (1999). Mang Tony from Cavite was described (Labios, 1999) to have realistic outlook, industry and hard work, dedication, good planning and low aversion to risk. He participated in the actual work in the farm while giving supervision  to set good example to his workers. He was receptive enough to change. He tried in his farm the knowledge he gained from seminars. He experimented in his farm. Technical soundness of the farming systems provided with adequate market and infrastructure support contributed to successful farming system. He believed that farming had much to offer and can provide the needs of the farm household for food, education, shelter, etc.

In the case of Mang Tino from Nueva Ecija, Ferrer (1999) described him to have a  strong determination to realize ones goal and vision. He had cultivated traits like industriousness, patience, rapport, and credibility. He tested and utilized  the knowledge and skills gained thru training and experience. He directly involved himself and managed important production activities. He had a deep sense of belonging and pride for his work and achievements.

Mang Florendo in Ilocos Norte (Pascua, 1999) stands out as farmer entrepreneur being educated, financially capable, aware of the factors affecting farming and an active member of cooperative. He had adequate knowledge about his farm. There was efficiency in terms of conservation and utilization of water in a rainfed environment. He modified the recommended technologies in tomato production and got higher yield compared to other farmers. He was resourceful in maximizing the use of rice hull and composted residues and animal manure in crop production. He shared technology information to fellow farmers and contributed into the success of the Tomato Growers Cooperative.

Mr. Villarin  from Laguna recommended careful assessment of the farm and the farmer’s capability (in both knowledge and resources) and the suitability of the practice or the enterprise to the farm condition as necessary for successful farming system (Wagan, 1999). This, he did, when he started integrating fish in his rice-based farming systems. He started integrating fish pond in small part of the farm and slowly expanded according to his capability and resources. He also attributed his success to patience and industry. He had a vision and foresight. He retired in farming, but converted his farm into a fishing resort which still earn them enough income while also spend leisure with friends.

Tio Wen and Tia Belen case was a partnership for success (Bordado, 1999). Tio Wen took care of the farm work, attended seminar and organized farm activities. Tia Belen did the credit sourcing, marketing, rice milling, maintained the store, raised animals and keep records. The couple was frugal. They acquired properties given good financial management after paying for obligation and providing for household needs and children education. They helped their relatives and other people in the community by credit sourcing and providing employment opportunities.

Mang Isyo and Aling Laida was awarded as “Outstanding Family of the Year” in Antique. They attributed their success to good sense of values, industry and deligence: discipline and strong determination; good relationship within the family as well as with the community; good planning and innovativeness;  openness to new technology and above all their never failing faith  in God (Millamena, 1999).

What are the factors for the success of enterprise and entrepreneurs?

            In business, success of entrepreneurs are indicated by their longevity in business, steady growth, expansion, client, trust, industry boom  (Angodung, et al., 1997). Edralin (1998) cited Schilit (1994) in categorizing success indicators as qualitative and quantitative indicators. Qualitative indicators include customer satisfaction; company reputation, community and social responsiveness of the firm. Quantitative indicators include stability and growth of financial position in terms of  return on investment, return on equity, earnings per share, and decrease in debt-equity ratio.

            In the same manner, success of a farmer entrepreneur  can be gleaned on their achievement of goals related to farm income and farm household well-being, profit, production, asset accumulation, human resources and sustainability.

            Successful entrepreneurs and their enterprises have their own success stories to tell but they have common characteristics  as a person and as a firm in a given business environment. Edralin (1998) cited Angudong et. al. (1997) who listed the factors of  success of an enterprise to include quality product/services, product positioning, effective human resource development and management, appropriate business policies, unique value strategy, responsiveness to change, and motivation of employees.

Edralin (1998) also cited the experiences of Pastrana and Pingol  as featured in Business Focus Philippines (1997) as successful entrepreneurs who attributed  their success to low cost of production with high value of output; professionalism; continuous product development and innovation; genuine camaraderie and friendship as business partners; confidence; seeking of feedback from performance; hardwork; industry and perseverance; vision; network; technical knowledge of the product; market research; and planning on long- and short-term basis.

FSSRI (1999) identified several factors to successful farming systems among farmer entrepreneur studied. Among those factors were :

1.    Technology. Access to new and appropriate technologies contributed to the success of various farming systems. With some modification on the recommended technologies for tomato production, Ka Florendo surpassed the average yield of tomato in the community. Enterprise diversification appeared to be a good startegy among farmer entrepreneurs.

2.    Provision of support services. In most of the cases studied, farmer entrepreneurs received extension support from the department of Agriculture, State college and universities (SCUs) and other institutions. They also availed credit from existing government programs but they mostly depended on non-formal credit sources. The availability of farm to market roads were essential to have an access to market. Market was not a problem among the farmer entrepreneur studied as they were known to be producers of good quality products hence buyers usually contacted them to buy their produce.

3.    Availability of resources. While the case study farmers were already financially capable, they emphasized that they achieve it through time, at a slow pace. Land ownership was an edge but do not necessarily hampered success, as in the case of Mang Tony in  Cavite.

4.    Personal traits and characteristics of the farmer entrepreneur. This personal traits and characteristics are unique to each case but they do have some commonalities. These include industry, discipline, creativity, innovativeness, frugality, patience, openness, good planning and decision making.

            Fajardo (1994) considered external factors as very important in promoting success of entrepreneurship, which include peace and order, political stability, price stability, taxation, infrastructures, education and training, public administration, production technology, markets  and financial assistance.

Can farmer entrepreneur be developed?

            The development of agricultural entrepreneurship can be approached in three interrelated perspectives – individual, farm household and community. The basic definition of entrepreneurship is related to an individual as an entrepreneur and not as a collective – farm household and community. There are indications, however that the success (and failure) of entrepreneurs in the context of small farms also lies on the collective characteristics of the farm household and the community organizations such as cooperative in the community. It is evident that external factors beyond the individual are important for an entrepreneur to succeed. Whatever are those factors, entrepreneurial qualities are challenged and entrepreneurs blossomed.

            Farmer entrepreneurs are aggressive, rational, risk-taker, creative, innovative, industrious, disciplined, frugal, open to change, patient, visionary, planner, and good decision makers. Can these qualities be learned? Bonifacio (1987) opined that it is possible but there is a need to provide adequate social and structural context for entrepreneurship to flourish. This would mean that within the social system, there should be some reorientation as to the values, roles, and attitudes that favor entrepreneurship and the formation of entrepreneurial communities.

            The farm household has a major role to play, for it is the family that values are first form. There are indications that families having entrepreneurial orientation tend to have siblings that are prepared to be entrepreneur. The social reproduction of knowledge and skills are initiated  at the farm household where entrepreneurial qualities are conveyed through family activities and apprenticeship.

There are tendencies among farm families to send their children to school and let them have profession other than farming as in the case of Tio Wen and Tia Belen. The basic reason is not to let their children suffer the hardship they experienced in farming before they became stable in agriculture.  However, if the children grow up in an environment where agriculture provide more than being employed somewhere else, then they would chose to be farmer entrepreneur as in the case of the son of Mang Tino in Nueva Ecija. Although, he had a BS Agriculture degree, He preferred to stay in the farm and continue improving what his father had done.

Through farmers organizations engaged in community-based entrepreneurship, the development of entrepreneurial values and attitudes can be enhanced. This will also help in expanding the opportunities that can be made available to the members of the community. Not everybody can be entrepreneur, but given favorable conditions, more farmers can become entrepreneur.

            With the availability of community-based support services to include research, extension, credit, inputs and marketing, farmer entrepreneur will not just be dealing with production but on value adding activities as well. They extend their activities beyond the farm into the communtiy-based enterprise as well. They are no longer just farm entrepreneur but agricultural entrepreneur. That is why I prefer to call them agriprenor.


Angudong, A. R.V. Puangco, B. Tupaz and S. Valerio. 1997. The success factors and success indicators of small, medium and large businesses in Metro Manila. De La salle University, April 1997. (Unpublished)

Bonifacio, M.F. 1987. Extension and research in the context of rural entrepreneurship. In Organizationa develeopment- DA Vision. Quezon City: Department of Agriculture.

Bordado, G. 1999. Rice-based farming systems: A case in Pili, Camarines Sur. In Successful farming systems in the Philippines- A documentation. Philippines: Farming Systems and Soil Resources Institute, CA, UPLB and Bureau of Agricultural Research.

“Bright years ahead for this enterprising duo”. Business Focus Philippines. 2:1, 50-52, January 1997.

Fajardo, F. 1994. Entrepreneurship. Manila: National Bookstore.

Drucker, P.F. 1985. Innovation and entrepreneurship. New York: harper & Row Publishers.

Edralin, D.M. 1998. Entrepinoy- Path to successful entrepreneurship. Manila: De La Salle University Press, Inc.

 Ferrer, A.L. 1999. Rice-based farming systems: A case in Talavera, Nueva Ecija. In Successful farming systems in the Philippines- A documentation. Philippines: FSSRI & BAR .

Labios, J. 1999. Pineapple and Coffee-based farming systems: A case in Tagaytay City, Cavite. In Successful farming systems in the Philippines- A documentation. Philippines: FSSRI & BAR.

Millamena, A.A. 1999. Rice-based  farming systems: A case in Sibalom, Leyte. In Successful farming systems in the Philippines- A documentation. Philippines: FSSRI & BAR.

Pascua, S. 1999. Rice-based farming system: A case in Batac, Ilocos Norte. In Successful farming systems in the Philippines- A documentation. Philippines: FSSRI & BAR.

Schilit, K. W. 1996.Rising starts and fast fades: Successes and failures of fast growth companies. USA: McMillan, Inc.

Wagan, A.M. 1999. Rice-based farming systems: A case in Pila, Laguna. In Successful farming systems in the Philippines- A documentation. Philippines: FSSRI & BAR.

Seminar paper prepared by V.T. Villancio for AGRO 199 – Colloquium in Agriculture, IAS Lecture Hall, July 17, 2000